Changes in soil quality following poplar short

There is increasing interest in using short-rotation woody biomass plantations as a source of fiber and as a carbon neutral energy supply. Willow, poplar, and alder are currently used in plantations in areas ranging from the Lake States to the Northwest. As with any cropping system, maintaining soil productivity through succeeding rotations is a key management goal.

Where plantations are used to provide carbon sequestration benefits i. We sampled three hybrid poplar farms in the Northwestern United States; all three farms are in the rain shadow of the Cascades and are on sandy soils. The farms share a similar land use history; originally sagebrush, the land was in annual crops such as peas, onions, and alfalfa, before conversion to poplar.

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At each farm, soil cores were taken from a field in annual crops, a first rotation poplar stand, and a second rotation poplar stand. Although results varied by farm, soil carbon concentrations were generally higher in the first and second rotation poplar stands than in the row-cropped fields; this was more pronounced in the cm and cm depths. There were no apparent declines in soil carbon concentration between the first and second rotations. Soil carbon concentrations under poplar were also higher than those in soils from native sagebrush, the original land cover.

Analysis of the chemical composition of the carbon using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry indicates that by the second rotation, the chemical signature of the carbon resembled that found in materials taken from the poplar trees. Enable full ADS. Similar Papers.

changes in soil quality following poplar short

Volume Content. Export Citation. Abstract There is increasing interest in using short-rotation woody biomass plantations as a source of fiber and as a carbon neutral energy supply.

No Sources Found.Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Front Microbiol, 04 Sep Biol Fertil Soils51 601 Aug Ecol Appl23 401 Jun Cited by: 4 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively.

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Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI. A subscription may be required. Elisa Pellegrino Search articles by 'Elisa Pellegrino'. Pellegrino E. Di Bene C. Cristiano Tozzini Search articles by 'Cristiano Tozzini'. Tozzini C. Enrico Bonari Search articles by 'Enrico Bonari'. Bonari E. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Little attention has been focused on soil quality following conversion of agricultural lands to biomass crops.

Here, we assessed the impact of a year-old short-rotation coppice SRC poplar stand on the main soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMFcompared with intensive agricultural and uncultivated systems.

Three different harvest frequencies of poplar SRC annual T1, biannual T2 and triennial T3 cutting cycles were evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that poplar SRC improved soil quality compared with intensive agricultural and uncultivated systems.

changes in soil quality following poplar short

T1 and T2 positively affected AMF inoculum potential and root colonisation of a co-occurring plant species, while T3 improved the majority of soil chemical and biochemical parameters. Moreover, three different AMF morphospecies belonging to the genera Glomus and Scutellospora were found in poplar SRC, while morphospecies belonging exclusively to genera Glomus were recorded in intensive agricultural and uncultivated systems. Such aspects have agro-ecological implications, since the positive changes of soil nutrient availability and carbon content together with a high abundance and diversity of soil biota show clear soil sustainability of poplar SRC.

Ratios of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon in arable soils Anderson Soil Biol.The response of soil respiration SR to elevated CO 2 is driven by a number of processes and feedbacks. This work aims to i detect the effect of elevated CO 2 on soil respiration during the second rotation of a short rotation forest, at two levels of N availability; and ii identify the main drivers behind any changes in soil respiration. Root biomass, litter production and soil respiration were followed for two consecutive years after coppice.

In the plantation, the stimulation of fine root and litter production under elevated CO 2 observed at the beginning of the rotation declined over time. The SR increase at first appeared to be due to the increase in fine root biomass, but at the end of the 2nd rotation was supported by litter decomposition and the availability of labile C. Soil respiration increase under elevated CO 2 was not affected by N availability.

The stimulation of SR by elevated CO 2 was sustained by the decomposition of above and belowground litter and by the greater availability of easily decomposable substrates into the soil.

In the final year as elevated CO 2 did not increase C allocation to roots, the higher SR suggests greater C losses from the soil, thus reducing the potential for C accumulation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Plant Soil — Funct Ecol — Baldocchi D, Tang J, Xu L How switches and lags in biophysical regulators affect spatial—temporal variation of soil respiration in an oak—grass savanna.

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J Geophys Res GO Biogeochem — New Phytol — Environ Pollut — Soil Biol Biochem — Global Change Biol — Agr Forest Meteorol — Google Scholar.

Tree Physiol — Nature — Ecosystems — Global Biogeochem Cy Oecologia — Kuzyakov Y, Cheng W Photosynthesis controls of rhizosphere respiration and organic matter decomposition. Lagomarsino A, Moscatelli MC, De Angelis P, Grego S Labile substrate quality as the main driving force of microbial mineralization activity in a poplar plantation soil under elevated CO 2 and nitrogen fertilization.

Sci Total Environ — In: Bouwman AF ed Soils and the greenhouse effect. Wiley, USA, pp — Ann For Sci — Liljeroth E, Kuikman P, Van Veen JA Carbon translocation to the rhizosphere of maize and wheat and influence on the turnover of native soil organic matter at different soil nitrogen levels.

Can J Fort Res — Ecol Ind — In: Steffen W et al eds Global change and the earth system: a planet under pressure. Springer, Berlin, pp — Ecol Appl — Ecology — Ecol Monogr —If you are looking for a comprehensive article on poplar for biofuel production, this is for you.

Poplars Populus spp. Around the world, people have used these trees for thousands of years to build homes, make tools and medicines, and protect river banks. They were also planted for windbreaks and shelterbelts. Poplars were first planted commercially in the Pacific Northwest in the late s, and commercial tree farms expanded during the last 45 years for the pulp and paper industry Berguson et al.

Today, poplar uses are expanding to provide environmental benefits such as phytoremediation, soil carbon sequestration, reduction in sediment run-off, improvement in soil quality, and habitat for wildlife Stanton et al. Poplars are also widely used for wood, veneer, and bioenergy. Researchers are working to improve poplars for bioenergy, carbon sequestration, phytoremediation, and watershed protection, and some argue that poplars can be an important component of solving twenty-first century economic and environmental problems as both human populations and greenhouse gases rise Gordon In the late s, hybrid poplar was part of the U.

The primary target was fuel for cogeneration of heat and electricity Hansen et al. The DOE and others are now interested in poplar for liquid fuels. Poplars can be farmed as short rotation woody crops SRWC and harvested every two to five years Balatinecz and Kretschmann Other short rotation woody crops being considered for biofuel include willows and eucalyptus.

Poplars are more desirable for biofuels than many other woody crops because of their fast growth, their ability to produce a significant amount of biomass in a short period of time, and their high cellulose and low lignin contents Fig 1. For liquid fuels, the cellulose provides the carbohydrates to produce bioenergy and the low lignin content makes it easier to extract carbohydrates from the biomass. In addition, the development of poplar genotypes with improved yield, higher pest resistance, increased site adaptability, and easy vegetative propagation has made poplar a commercially valuable energy crop.

The DOE also considers poplars to be one of the short rotation woody biomass crops that can be nationally developed DOE Poplars have some advantages over other bioenergy crops such as grasses because the wood does not need to be stored, which allows harvest to occur throughout the year. The search for alternatives to fossil fuels has led to a worldwide increase in poplar research for SRWC systems.

In Germany, researchers found that SRWCs reduce environmental impacts when used for biofuels compared to fossil fuels Roedl Trials of purpose-grown poplars for biofuels are occurring in Virginia Brunner et al. Worldwide, poplars are one of the fastest growing temperate trees and can grow from 5 to 10 feet per year depending on the variety and location Stanturf et al.

Native poplars are members of the willow family Salicaceae and occur throughout the continental U. The trees have a short life span and thrive with high moisture and full sun.

changes in soil quality following poplar short

Poplars are found on a range of alluvial to dry upland sites, but they grow best in fertile alluvial soils. The trees are deciduous, and leaf shape varies widely among the species. Each tree is either male or female, and in the spring they produce either pollen-bearing or seed-producing catkins Dickman In North America, eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides and western black cottonwood P.

Eastern cottonwood P. In areas where eastern and black cottonwood ranges overlap and naturally hybridize, researchers observed that these hybrids grew faster than either parent species. As a result, hybrid poplar tree improvement programs have been producing new hybrids for almost years Dickman and Stuart Work has also been done to cross native poplars with Asian black poplar P.

These characteristics allow for rapid, economical propagation and deployment of new, fast-growing hybrids. These clones can be used to establish hybrid poplar tree farms in most of the U.The influence of shelterbelt afforestation on soils in different-depth profiles and possible interaction with climatic conditions is important for evaluating ecological effects of large-scale afforestation programs.

In the Songnen Plain, northeastern China, soil samples were collected from five different soil layers 0—20, 20—40, 40—60, 60—80, and 80— cm in shelterbelt poplar forests and neighboring farmlands. Soil physiochemical properties [pH, electrical conductivity ECsoil porosity, soil moisture and bulk density], soil carbon and nutrients [soil organic carbon SOCN, alkaline-hydrolyzed N, P, available P, K and available K], forest characteristics [tree height, diameter at breast height DBHand density], climatic conditions [mean annual temperature MATmean annual precipitation MAPand aridity index ARID ], and soil texture percentage of silt, clay, and sand were measured.

For other parameters soil pH and ECshelterbelt-influences were mainly observed in surface soils, e. For soil moisture, shelterbelt afforestation decreased soil water by 7. For SOC and N, no significant differences between shelterbelt and farmlands were found in all five-depth soil profiles. MAT and silt content provided the greatest explanation powers for inter-site variations in shelterbelt-induced soil properties changes.

Therefore, shelterbelt afforestation in northeastern China could affect aspects of soil properties down to cm deep, with inter-site variations mainly controlled by climate and soil texture, and greater contribution from water characteristics in deeper soils.

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There are numerous forest plantations worldwide, many of which were planted in degraded or abandoned farmlands and are used as agricultural protection forests or bioenergy forests in China Wang G. There are approximately 6. The large shelterbelt forest area in China makes it a good example for studying the ecological functions of shelterbelt forests, and underground soil changes are an important issue to fully understand the functions of forests Zhu, ; Wang et al. Although the black soils in northeastern China contain abundant soil organic matter and have high fertility compared with other soils Cas, ; Hljtr,excessive historical reclamation has led to sharp decreases in soil fertility since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in Wang et al.

Several studies have shown that afforestation in cultivated farmland soils induced changes in most soil properties and soil fertility, contributing to soil improvement in different cases Li and Cui, ; Wang Q. In addition, soil physical properties could be altered from afforestation practices, including increases in soil bulk density and decreases in total porosity, water retention, and ventilation capacity Wang, ; Wang et al.

However, other studies also found that fast-growing plantations, such as larch, poplar, or eucalyptus, require more soil nutrients, and water Chen, ; Mendham et al. However, other studies have found that deep soils can sensitively react to land use changes Fontaine et al. Songnen Plain was named after the Songhua and Nenjiang Rivers running through this region.

Songnen Plain is about Our previous study has shown that poplar shelterbelt afforestation in northeastern China slightly changed SOC sequestration and N nutrients in the surface 20 cm soils, with sharp decreases in bulk density Wu et al. Moreover, glomalin-related soil carbon sequestration was higher in deep soils than that in surface soils, with more response to climatic changes in the farmlands of this region Wang et al.

Annual precipitation in Songnen Plain ranges from to mm, with a 2—3-fold higher annual evaporation 1,—1, mm Li, This natural background, heavy pressure from farming and grazing, and fast saline-alkalinization in soil are important challenges for social development and livelihood in this region Li, ; Wang et al. The evaluation of shelterbelt afforestation on underground soils in this region must fully consider the variations in the widespread plain, and fully understanding of the underlying mechanisms needs more consideration on forest characteristics, climatic conditions including the aridity index ARIDsoil texture both at surface and deep soils Wang W.

In the present study, we alleged that deep soils at cm depth should be included in the evaluation of various soil changes in poplar afforestation, and large inter-site variation in the shelterbelt forest-induced soil changes were related to local climatic differences, soil texture, and forest growth.

changes in soil quality following poplar short

We posed several research questions as follows: 1 Should deep soil layers be included in the evaluations of soil improvements from degraded farmlands to poplar forests and did these improvements differ in different soil parameters? By evaluating the shelterbelt-induced soil changes in various properties in different soil layers, our data assisted the evaluation of underground soil changes in large scale shelterbelt programs, such as the Three-North Shelterbelt Program, particularly the quantification of the importance of deep soils for afforestation practices in degraded farmlands.

The Three-North Shelterbelt Program established tree plantations around farmlands in northern China, northwestern China, and northeastern China in Zhu, Wu et al. Figure 1. Six study sites in the Songnen Plain, Northeastern China, and a typical poplar shelterbelt-farmland paired site. Parts of this figures was adapted from our previous publication Wu et al.

The soil types in the study region are typical black soils, including Chernozem Fuyu, LanlingPhaeozem MingshuiCambosols Dumengand some degraded soil, such as Solonetz Zhaozhou, Zhaodong. This region has a continental monsoon climate, with MAT of 2. Soil samples were collected from 72 paired shelterbelt plantations and farmland plots in the six study sites.JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website.

Soil health is the foundation of productive farming practices. Fertile soil provides essential nutrients to plants. Important physical characteristics of soil-like structures and aggregation allow water and air to infiltrate, roots to explore, and biota to thrive.

Diverse and active biological communities help soil resist physical degradation and cycle nutrients at rates to meet plant needs. Soil health and soil quality are terms used interchangeably to describe soils that are not only fertile but also possess adequate physical and biological properties to "sustain productivity, maintain environmental quality and promote plant and animal health" Doron Remember, soil fertility is only one component of soil quality.

Fertile soils are able to provide the nutrients required for plant growth. These are the chemical components of soil. Some plants need certain nutrients in large amounts, like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are called macronutrients. Other nutrients, like boron and manganese, plants only need in very small amounts. In high-quality soil, nutrients are available at rates high enough to supply plant needs, but low enough that excess nutrients are not leached into groundwater or present at high levels toxic to plants and microbes.

All these characteristics sound great. But when you look at your field, how do you tell whether you have high-quality soil and how do you improve it? The first step is to learn about the properties of your soil. The following describes soil properties and indicators of soil quality that are important for healthy, productive crops.

Indicators are easily measurable things that allow us to see what is happening in soil.

Soil Quality Information

We cannot change certain aspects of a given soil. Soil texture is one such aspect. Soil texture is a good place to start when you look at your soil. When you understand your soil's texture, you know more about the possible restrictions on your particular piece of land as well as any advantages. Find where your farm is on the soil texture triangle. Illustration 1: Soil Texture Triangle.

The soils texture triangle shows different amounts of water and air in soil with different sized and shaped particles. Illustration courtesy of C. The terms sand, silt, and clay refer to particle size; sand is the largest and clay is the smallest.

Gravel particles are larger than 2 millimeters mmsand particles are 0. To put this in perspective, if a particle of clay were the size of a BB, then a particle of silt would be the size of a golf ball and a grain of sand would be the size of a chair FAO See Illustration 2.

Illustration 2: Particle Size. To put particle size in perspective, if a particle of clay were the size of a BB, then a particle of silt would be the size of a golf ball and a grain of sand would be the size of a chair. Even though the definition is based on particle size, the shape of the particles is important for thinking about how soil texture relates to soil quality.

Sand particles are generally round, while silt and clay particles are usually thinner and flatter. In a soil with larger, round particles, more space is available for the water and air that our plants need.

Also, the air space between the particles is larger, providing good aeration. However, in a sandy soil, many of the air spaces are too large to hold water against the force of gravity, creating a soil with low water-holding capacity that is prone to drought.

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You can determine a soil's texture by how the soil feels. Does it feel gritty, greasy, or floury?Irrigation of grasslands with potato starch wastewater causes changes in soil quality parameters, often resulting in decreased crop yields and sometimes causing animal diseases. Reduced agricultural income leads to designation of such grasslands for afforestation aimed at production of bioenergy crops and improvement of soil quality.

In this study, Populus alba L.

Poplar (Populus spp.) Trees for Biofuel Production

The survival, growth and wood production potential of planted poplars after 2—3 growing seasons were analyzed. Morphophysiological parameters of leaves, nutrients in leaves and fine roots, sugars in fine roots, leaf rust resistance, frost hardiness and their effects on growth were also determined. Stem diameter and stem volume index of poplars growing on the grassland were higher than in the experimental forest.

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Clone ERI was also characterized by a high leaf rust resistance and frost hardiness. The results suggest that clone ERI is suitable as a bioenergy crop on grasslands irrigated with potato starch wastewater.

Afforestation of the grassland improved the fertility of the soil by increasing concentrations of soil organic matter and availability of mineral nutrients N, P, K, S and Fe. Fruit and vegetable processing industry, wineries, distilleries as well as olive oil and starch production use huge volumes of water and generate large quantities of wastewater Hamilton et al. Wastewater reuse in agriculture irrigation is a common practice Aryal and Reinhold ; Buelow et al.

About 20 million ha of land worldwide are irrigated with wastewater Hamilton et al. In industrial starch production from potato Solanum tuberosum L. PSW is rich in organic substances, inorganic suspensions and macronutrients Arienzo et al.

Because of the high concentrations of organic substances and nutrients, attempts were made to use PSW as substrate for production of microorganisms Chang et al. However, most often PSW is used to irrigate and fertilize fields Rosenwinkel et al. Unfortunately, PSW application for many years leads to unfavorable changes in nutrient content of the soil.

Potassium from PSW may be immediately available for plants, so irrigation with PSW may also lead to increasing the total and bioavailable concentrations of K in soil Arienzo et al. Potatoes, legumes and grasses are K accumulators, but grasses accumulate K mainly in leaves Arienzo et al.

At the time of increasing competition, the suboptimal productivity and insufficient finances for balanced fertilization of arable land and grassland lead to their exclusion from agricultural use and designation for afforestation aimed at biomass production for energy Broeckx et al.

Poplars are some of the most promising woody species that can be grown in environments of varying fertility, with relative tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress conditions and high biomass and stem-wood production. Therefore our working hypothesis was that these poplar clones can be also suitable for growth on grassland irrigated for a long time with PSW.

For example, frost, drought, or leaf rust infection can distinctly lower yields Aylott et al. Therefore, their susceptibility to leaf rust and extreme weather conditions sometimes occurring in Poland was known to us. The first objective of the present study was to determine which poplar clones are the most productive on the grassland irrigated with PSW. Therefore we evaluated the survival rate of selected poplar clones, their height, stem diameter and volume.

Secondly, we investigated the effect of frost hardiness, leaf rust resistance as well as leaf and root morphophysiological characteristics on poplar growth and biomass production. We planted rooted cuttings, as differences in rooting ability of poplars may also affect their growth potential Zalesny Jr and Bauer Our third objective was to investigate the effect of poplar planting on soil quality related to soil mineral concentrations and enzymatic activities phosphomonoesterases important in the metabolic capacity of the soil and for nutrient cycling Nannipieri et al.

Poplars are fast-growing trees and their extensive root system as well as abundant leaf fall improve the soil structure and increase nutrient cycling Truax et al.

Finally, the field experiment with different poplar clones for 3 growing seasons GS1, GS2, and GS3 on the grassland irrigated for decades with PSW is compared with a parallel experiment in a non-irrigated, experimental forest where other poplars were grown previously.

The two sites differ in soil texture, pH and concentrations of essential mineral elements. We discuss the suitability of selected poplar clones for survival, biotic and abiotic tolerance, growth and wood production potential in both environments as well as for revitalization of the grassland soil irrigated with PSW.

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